Utilities have taken on the practice of applying standby and fixed cost charges specific to solar PV for customers choosing to go solar as a means to recover costs resulting from net energy metering (NEM).
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As solar PV continues to expand, utilities are increasingly conducting studies on how best to integrate these resources into the grid.
In a recent report, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory summarizes the Integrated Resource Plans of major Western U.S. utilities to assess their assumptions about future changes within the electricity markets they serve.
In its recent report on solar integration within the Hawaiian grid, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory finds that distributed and utility scale solar can be reliably accommodated by electrical grids on Maui and Oahu at penetration rates of 20%.